The Reference Library Contains Various Documents That Are Relevant To Radiological Effluent and Environmental Issues for U.S. Nuclear Power Facilities.

Please feel free to suggest additional content.


EPA Documents that relate to Radiological Effluent and Environmental Monitoring

►ORP/SID 72-2 "Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Guide"
►EPA 520/1-80-012 "Upgrading Environmental Data"
►EPA 520/5-80-004 "Health Impact Assessment of Carbon-14 Emissions From Normal Operations of Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities"

IAEA Reports▼


NUREGS that relate to Radiological Effluent and Environmental Monitoring

►NUREG 0133 "Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants"
►NUREG 0172 "Age-Specific Radiation Dose Commitment Factors for a One-Year Chronic Intake"
►NUREG 0472 "Standard Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Pressurized Water Reactors, Rev 3" - September 1982
►NUREG 0543 "Methods for Demonstrating LWR Compliance With the EPA Uranium Fuel Cycle Standard"
►NUREG 1301 "Offsite Dose Calculation Manual Guidance: Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for Pressurized Water Reactors"
►NUREG 1302 "Offsite Dose Calculation Manual Guidance: Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for Boiling Water Reactors"
►NUREG CR-2612 "Variability in Dose Estimates Associated with the Food Chain Transport and Ingestion of Selected Radionuclides"
►NUREG 2919 "XOQDOQ: Computer Program for the Meteorological Evaluation of Routine Effluent Releases at Nuclear Power Stations"
►NUREG/CR 3332 "Radiological Assessment, A Text Book on Environmental Dose Analysis"
►NUREG 4007 "Lower Limit of Detection: Definition and Elaboration of a Proposed Position for Radiological Effluent and Environmental Measurements"
►NUREG 4013 "LADTAP II Technical Reference and User Guide"
►NUREG CR-4653 "GASPAR Technical Reference and User Guide"
►NUREG CR-6910 "Alternative Conceptual Models for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models"
►NUREG TM-12 "Carbon-14 Production in Nuclear Reactors"

NRC Reg Guides▼

NRC Health Physics Position Memos▼

►HPPOS-004 Definition of Waste Gas Storage Tank Radioactivity Limits
►HPPOS-007 Monitoring of Radioactive Release Via Storm Drains
►HPPOS-008 Response to Questions Concerning Enforcement of 40 CFR 190 "EPA Uranium Fuel Cycle Standard"
►HPPOS-009 Request for NRR Follow-Up on Environmental Samples with Levels Greater Than FES Estimates
►HPPOS-040 Effluent Radiation Monitor Calibrations
►HPPOS-041 Errors in Dose Assessment Computer Codes and Reporting Requirements Under 10 CFR Part 21
►HPPOS-042 Contaminated Soil at Big Rock Point
►HPPOS-052 Effluent Reporting Requirement Per 10 CFR 20.405 (a), "Reports of Overexposures and Excessive Levels and Concentrations"
►HPPOS-065 Inspection Guidance on 10 CFR 50.72, "Immediate Notification Requirement for Operating Power Reactors"
►HPPOS-072 Guide on "How Hard You Have to Look" as Part of Radioactive Contamination Control Program
►HPPOS-079 Contamination of Nonradioactive System and Resulting Potential for Unmonitored, Uncontrolled Release of Radioactivity to the Environment
►HPPOS-088 Corrections for Sample Conditions for Air and Gas Monitoring
►HPPOS-099 Attention to Liquid Dilution Volumes in Semiannual Radioactive Effluent Release Reports
►HPPOS-102 Meaning of the Expression "Dose Equivalent Xe-133" in the Technical Specifications
►HPPOS-140 Guidance on Reporting Doses to Members of the Public from Normal Operations
►HPPOS-171 Lower Technical Specification Limit of Detection for Liquid Effluents
►HPPOS-212 Dissolved Noble Gases in Liquid Effluents and Compliance With Technical Specifications 3.11.1
►HPPOS-221 Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) for Potentially Contaminated Oil
►HPPOS-229 Relaxation of Definition of Source Check in Reference to Effluent Radiation Monitors
►HPPOS-254 Definition of Unplanned Release
►HPPOS-326 Technical Assistant Request, Venting of Turbine Building at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

NRC Inspection Procedures▼

NRC Miscellaneous Documents▼

ICRP-2 Dose Factors▼

40 CFR 190 and 10 CFR 50, Appendix I require reporting of organ doses based on ICRP-2 methodology. Regulatory Guide 1.109 contains a limited number of ICRP-2 dose factors. The documents below provide dose factors for radioncuclides not found in Regulatory Guide 1.109.

► ICRP 2 International Commission on Radiation Protection, Publication 2, 1959, “Report of Committee II on Permissible Dose for Internal Radiation.” This is the basis document for the inhalation and ingestion organ dose conversion factors found in Regulatory Guide 1.109, LADTAP and GASPAR.
► ICRP 7 Description: International Commission on Radiation Protection, Publication 7, 1965, “Principles of Environmental Monitoring Related to the Handling of Radioactive Materials.”
► LADTAP II Data LADTAP Dose Factors (xls) - An Excel 2000 spreadsheet containing a comprehensive set of ICRP 2 dose factors as found in the NRC LADTAP II computer code. The file also includes bioaccumulation and stable element transfer factors not found in Reg Guide 1.109.
The data was extracted directly from the Fortran IV source code and therefore should reflect an accurate dataset. Details of LADTAP II are found in NUREG 4013 (see the NUREG section of this site)

► EMP-155 "Review and Expansion of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 Models for Computing Dose Conversion Factors" Although commissioned by the NRC, this report was never formally issued. It provides details on the methodology used in the determination of the dose factors found in Reg. Guide 1.109.

National Beaureau of Standards Handbooks▼




ODCM - Offsite Dose Calculation Manual

REMP - Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program

RETS - Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications


What are Radiological Effluents?

The term Radiological Effluents refers to routine releases of radioactive liquids and gases from various medical, commercial, military and power production facilities.

How are Radiological Effluents regulated?

The regulations that govern radioactive effluents releases from commercial nuclear power plants are found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set standards for dose limits to a member of the public from the total nuclear fuel cycle in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 190 (or 40 CFR 190). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has set regulations for commercial nuclear generation stations in 10 CFR 20 and 10 CFR 50.

Why are ODCM doses calculated in terms of Organ Dose rather than Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE)?

EPA 40 CFR 190 is the driving force behind how the ODCM doses are calculated. It requires that compliance be demonstrated in terms of Organ Doses. Until such time that 40 CFR 190 is revised to reflect the more modern dose methodology, effluent doses must continue to be reported as Organ Dose.

Notable Nuclear Nobel Laureates ▼

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

Antoine Henri Becquerel

Marie Curie

Pierre Curie

Philipp Lenard


Joseph John Thomson

Ernest Rutherford

Charles Glover Barkla

Max Planck

Albert Einstein


Frederick Soddy

Niels Bohr

Robert A. Millikan

James Franck

Gustav Hertz


Arthur H. Compton

C.T.R. Wilson

Louis de Broglie

Werner Heisenberg

Paul A.M. Dirac


Erwin Schrödinger

James Chadwick

Enrico Fermi

Otto Hahn

Wolfgang Pauli


Pavel A. Cherenkov

Richard P. Feynman



RETS/REMP Workshop Archives▼

Interesting Links▼